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What does it mean to be "underfiltered"? If my Ammonia and Nitrite is always zero, does that mine my filtration is fine?
 

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Good question and not an easy answer!!

My opinion on under filtered is an aquarium that can't process the ammonia and nitrite for the existing bio-load or stock within 24 hours regardless of the type of filtration used.

I also like to have sufficient water movement to move most debris to the filter or to see water movement in the tank that encourages good gas exchange at the water surface.

It sounds like your filter(s) are doing the job for your stocking level.
 

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I would also add that if filters need cleaning at shorter intervals, like weekly or even bi-weekly, then perhaps some mechanical assistance is needed. Bio filtering may be adequate, mechanical may be lacking. Not really harm to fish, just more work for the fishkeeper.
 

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It is pretty easy to have Ammonia and Nitrite always zero once a tank is cycled. The challenge becomes keeping the nitrates, say at 20 or lower. That is helped with frequent water changes and lots of filtering will catch debris and uneaten food and fish waste that can be removed with adequate filter maintenance.
 
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