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Tarsus: (pl. tarsi) The most distal major leg segment, immediately beyond the tibia, often divided into tarsal segments.

Taxonomy: The classification of organisms in an ordered system that indicates natural relationships.

Teleplanic Larva: Larva capable of dispersal over long distances, such as across oceans.

Temperate: Pertaining to the latitudinal belt between 23º 27' and 66º 33' north or south latitude.

Tentacle: The arms that surround the mouth of a coral polyp; the site of stinging cells called cnidae which enable the polyp to capture passing zooplankton.

Tentacle-Tube-Foot Suspension Feeder: Suspension feeder that traps particles on distinct tentacles or tube feet (in echinoderms).

Terminal Anchor: In hydraulically burrowing organisms: any device used to anchor the leading portion of the burrower, permitting muscular contraction to drag the rest of the body into the sediment.

Terminal: Pertaining to the posterior end of the body or distal end of a structure.

Terrestrial: Petaining to land; living on land.

Territoriality: Defense of a specified location against intruders.

Tertiary Production: The production of living material per unit area (or volume) per unit time by organisms consuming the herbivores. Usually expressed as grams carbon per meter square per year.

Tessellation: A mosiac pattern of small square blocks.

Thallium (TI): The MCL is 0.002 mg/L, but a MCL Goal is 0.0005. Thallium is associated with hair loss, changes in the blood, and kidney, digestive, and liver problems.

Thallus: The body of a plant which is not differentiated into stem, root and leaf.

Thermocline: Depth zone within which temperature changes maximally.

Thermohaline Circulation: Movement of seawater that is controlled by density differences that are largely explained in terms of temperature and salinity.

Thorax: The second or middle major body region of an insect.

Tibia: (pl. tibiae) The fourth major segment of the insect leg, between the femur and the tarsus.

Tidal Current: A water current generated by regularly varying tidal forces.

Tidal Zone: The area along the beach shoreline that is affected by the rise and fall of the tide.

Tides: Periodic movement of water resulting from gravitational attraction between the earth, sun, and moon.

Tin (Sn): No MCL has been established for tin.

Tolerant: Generally referring to an organism able to withstand relative extremes in environmental conditions.

Tooth: A sharp projection on the base of the outer lip.

Total Dissolved Solids (TDS): A water quality parameter defining the concentration of dissolved organic and inorganic chemicals in water. After suspended solids are filtered from water and water is evaporated, dissolved solids are the remaining residue. Dissolved solids may include calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, sulfate, chloride and silica. Total dissolved solid concentrations depend on the geologic material water passes through in the saturated and unsaturated zone, and the quality of the infiltrating water. High total dissolved solids may effect the aesthetic quality of the water, interfere with washing clothes and corroding plumbing fixtures. For aesthetic reasons, a limit of 500 mg dissolved solids/L is typically recommended for potable water supplies.

Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN): There is no MCl for total kjeldahl nitrogen. This parameter is used to measure the total amount of organic nitrogen and is typically used for surface water and groundwater investigations associated with domestic or agricultural contamination.

Total Solids: The total amount of solids in the sample, which includes: dissolved, suspended, and volatile.

Total Suspended Solids (TSS): A fixed volume of sample is filtered through a preweighed and washed glass fiber filter. The filter is then rinsed and dried at 103 to 105 C. The change in the weight of the filter represents the weight of suspended material. This test is typically done for surfacewater supplies and wastewater treatment plants. For drinking water, turbidity is parameter that is typically monitored.

Total Volatile Solids (TVS): The residue for previous testing is then ignited at a temperature of 500 C. The change in the weight represents the amount of suspended or dissolved solids that are organic in nature or volatilized. The parameter is typically used in wastewater treatment plants because it provides an estimate of the organic matter content within the waste stream.

Toxicant: Substance dissolved in water that produces a harmful effect on organisms, either by an immediate large dose or by small doses over a period of time.

Trace Elements: A term used to describe the many necessary elements found in water that are needed for proper plant and fish growth, although they are usually only needed in very small amounts. Among them are calcium, strontium, iodine and ozone. These are usually replenished with partial water changes and food or specific additives.

Trade Winds: Persistent winds at low latitudes in both the Northern and Southern hemispheres, blowing toward the west and the equator.

Transmissivity: The capacity of an aquifer to transmit water. It is dependent on the water-transmitting characteristics of the saturated formation (hydraulic conductivity) and the saturated thickness. For example, sand and gravel formations typically have greater hydraulic conductivities than sandstone formations. The sand and gravel will have a greater transmissivity if both formations are the same thickness.

Trench: Deep and sinuous depression in the ocean floor, usually seaward of a continental margin or an arcuate group of volcanic islands.

Trickle Filter: This form of a wet/dry filter provides primarily filtration. Water is dripped over some media (e.g., Bio-Balls), which are also exposed to the air. This promotes very efficient nitrification. The water may drip from a spray bar or drip plate. The medium may be small pieces of plastic, DLS, or anything else that will support bacteria and not easily clog.

Tritrate Test Method: A specific method of water testing in which a reagent is dropped into a sample until a color change is noticed. More accurate than color comparison test methods.

Trophic Level: In a food chain, a level containing organisms of identical feeding habits with respect to the chain (e.g., herbivores).

Tropical: Being within the latitudinal zone bounded by the two tropics (23º 27' north and south latitude).

Tubercle: Small white pustules on the gill covers, which exists mainly on freshwater cyprinids.

Turbidity: Turdidity is a measure of the cloudiness or opaqueness of the water and is measured in nephelometric turbidity units (ntu). The turbidity is influenced by the amount and nature of suspended organic and inorganic material in water. Typically, the higher the concentration of the suspended material the greater the turbidity. The value of 1 ntu is recommend for drinking water, since higher turbidities could cause aesthetic problems or inhibit the ability of a system to disinfect the water. The source of turbidity could be fine sand, silt, and clay (i.e., soil separates); organic material, particles of iron and manganese or other metal oxides, rust from corroding piping, or carbonate precipitates. Turbidity measurements are typically not made on surfacewater sources - see Total suspended solids.

Turbulence: Refers to how rapid and strong the water movement is.

Turion: A modified bud, the leaves of which contain abundant storage reserves, by which the plant survives Winter and renews its growth in Spring.

Turnover Rate: The number of times the water in an aquarium is passed through the filtration system in one hour. The minimum should be three or four times per hour.
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