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Saline: Water that contains salt.

Salinity: The measurement of dissolved salts in the aquarium water. Usually given as the number of grams of dissolved salts in 1,000 g of seawater.

Salps: A group of pelagic tunicates (phylum Urochordata), either colonial or solitary, with buccal and atrial siphons on opposite sides of the body.

Salt Marsh: A coastal habitat consisting of salt-resistant plants residing in an organic-rich sediment accreting toward sea level.

Salt: A generic term which scientifically refers to a cation and an anion. However, in aquatics, it refers to the proper combination of inorganic salts, composed mainly of sodium and magnesium chloride.

Saturated Formation Zone: The portion of a soil profile or geologic formation where all voids, spaces or cracks are filled with water. No air is present. There may be multiple water-bearing formations within a saturated formation. These water-bearing formations often are separated by layers of clay or other impermeable layers.

Saturated Thickness Zone: The total thickness of a saturated formation.

Scale: Small places which are scattered throughout the body of the fish. They are the primary source of protection for most fish. May also refer to calcium plaques or build-up on an aquarium.

Scalloped: Made up of a series of curves (on the edge of the shell).

Scalpel: A spine which is located on the tail base of surgeonfish (tangs). It is retractable and gives them their name, as it looks very much like a scalpel.

Scales: Thin, small, overlapping plates which protect a fish's body. Scales grow in regular concentric patterns and can be used to determine the age and life history of a fish.

Scaly: Covered with thin platelike layers or pieces.

Scavenger: An organism that feeds on dead or decomposing animals or macrophytes.

School: A group of fish that swim together, usually composed of the same species or sub-species.

Scleractinia: Order of coelenterates, usually producing calcareous skeletons with hexameral symmetry.

Sclerite: A chitinous or calcareous plate, spicule, or similar part of an invertebrate, especially one of the hard outer plates forming part of the exoskeleton of an arthropod.

Scleritized: Hardened and usually darkened segmentation - characteristic of animals whose bodies are divided into a series of repeated units.

Scope For Growth: The surplus of energy available for growth beyond that required for maintenance.

SCUBA Diving: A method of viewing coral reefs underwater for extended periods of time; diving into depths of the water using a Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus. seagrass bed - a large area in the tidal zone of the ocean where seagrasscs grow.

Sculpture: Carving on surface of a shell, such as ribs and ridges.

Scute: A type of scale most common in catfish.

Scyphozoa: The true jellyfish, members of the phylum Cnidaria.

Sea Cow: Large herbivorous marine mammals of tropic waters; includes the manatee and dugong.

Sea-Floor Spreading: The horizontal movement of oceanic crust.

Seagrass Ecosystem: The environment of aquatic plants called seagrasses that live in the tidal zone of the ocean, and all the other non-living and living things that have relationships there.

Seasonal Estuary: An estuary in which salinity at any one geographic point changes seasonally (e.g., decreases during the spring melt).

Seaward: Side of an island that faces the direction of wave action generated either by winds or by currents generated by more indirect forces.

Secondary Production: The production of living material per unit area (or volume) per unit time by herbivores. Usually expressed as grams carbon per meter square per year.

Sediment: Sands, silts, or soil mixed into, carried by, or deposited from water.

Seepage: The movement of water into or through a porous material. Seepage occurs from canals, ditches, and other water storage facilities. It sometimes is used to describe water escaping from municipal landfill sites.

Selection: A change in allele frequency over time in a population.

Selenium (Se): The MCL is 0.05 mg/L. Selenium is associated with hair or fingernail loss, numbness of fingers and toes, and circulatory problems. For freshwater the concentration should be less than 1.5 mg/L.

Sequential Hermaphrodite: An individual that sequentially produces male and then female gametes or vice versa.

Serrate: Having sawlike notches along the edge.

Sessile: Sessile means the organism is attached to the substrate at the bottom of the ocean and therefore cannot move around. Pelagic refers to living in the water of the ocean above the bottom. Pelagic organisms have the ability to move around. Benthos and benthic refers to living near or under substrate at the bottom of the ocean. Also used as a term to describe a leaf which has no Petiole.

Seston: Particulate matter suspended in seawater.

Seta: Slender hairlike appendage.

Setbacks: Distance away from a feature which is supposed to provide a buffer to reduce transport of pollutants to areas of concern such as residences or waterways.

Settled Polyp: The larvae of a coral polyp that has come to attach itself to a clean, hard surface and begins to grow.

Setules: Chitinous projections from copepod maxillipeds that trap food particles.

Sexual Reproduction: A natural process by which some plants and anhnals produce offspring as a result of the production of eggs and the fertilization from another plant or animal. shallow - water that is not deep.

Shannon-Weiner Index (H): This diversity measure came from information theory and measures the order (or disorder) observed within a particular system. In ecological studies, this order is characterized by the number of individuals observed for each species in the sample plot (e.g., biofilm on a plexiglass disc).

Shelf-Slope Break: Line marking a change from the gently inclined continental shelf to the much steeper depth gradient of the continental slope.

Shock Chlorination: The addition of chlorine for disinfecting a water supply system including the well, and all distribution pipelines. Shock chlorination is recommended when coliform bacteria are detected, or after system repairs. Treated water, with a concentration of at least 200 ppm, is pumped throughout the distribution system and allowed to set for at least 24 hours before flushing with untreated water.

Shoulder: Portion of shell above base which bulges out.

Sibling Species: Closely-related species that are so similar that they are nearly indistinguishable morphologically.

Sigma: Parameter expressing the seawater density: and equal to 1 minus the density of seawater, measured at a given temperature and at a pressure of l atmosphere.

Silicon: A trace element in the marine system. It is an element that is a building block for many organisms with silica shells. It is also sold commercially as an aquarium-safe adhesive and is used to glue the glass of aquariums together.

Silt: Fine soil mixed into, carried by, or deposited from water as sediment.

Siltation: The accumulation of silt in the bottom of waterways or bodies of water.

Silver (Ag): The MCL is 0.10 mg/L. Silver is associated with causing discoloration of the skin. For freshwater the concentration should be less than 0.0003 mg/L.

Simpson's Index (D): The probability that two randomly selected individuals in the community belong to the same category (e.g., species).

Simpson's Index of Diversity (1 - D): The probability that two randomly selected individuals in a community belong to different categories (e.g., species).

Simpson's Reciprocal Index (1/D): The number of equally common categories (e.g., species) that will produce the observed Simpson's index.

Sinuous: Bending or wavy.

Siphon: The inhalent and exhalent siphons of tridacnid clams are used to allow for gas exchange and to expel wastes. Also refers to the process of removing water from a tank with the aid of a hose and gravity.

Siphonal Canal: A canal at the base of the aperture, between the inner and outer lip.

Siphonophores: A group of specialized hydrozoan cnidarians, consisting of large planktonic polymorphic colonies.

Skeleton: The hardened, insoluble framework that supports or houses many kinds of animals.

Skeletal Pattern: The distinct pattern in which the calcium carbonate skeleton is laid down by different species of coral polyps.

Sled: A benthic sampling device designed to slide along the sediment surface, digging into the bottom to a depth of at most a few centimeters.

Slope: A steep-sloping bottom extending seaward from the edge of the continental shelf and downward toward the rise.

Smolt: Young salmon, migrating downstream from freshwater to saltwater. When parr become smolts, they lose their spots and turn silvery.

Snorkel: A plastic tube that extends above the surface of water and allows a swimmer to breathe air while swimming.

Snorkeling: Swimming while breathing through a snorkel and with the assistance of a mask and fins.

Snow: See Marine Snow.

Sockeye: A species of salmon also known as the "red" salmon. They have a dark blue-black back with silvery sides. There are no distinct spots on their backs, dorsal fins, or tails. The spawning adults develop dull, green colored heads with brick red to scarlet bodies. The male develops a hooked nose.

Sodium (Na): No MCL has been set. For individuals on low sodium diets a general recommendation of 20 mg/L is used.

Sodium Cyanide: A poisonous chemical used to capture aquarium fish and live fish; the use of which has caused widespread damage to coral reefs in the Philippines, Indonesia and the islands of Micronesia.

Soft Corals: A group of coral species that are thick and fleshy, and that move and wave in ocean water currents. These corals do not produce calcium carbonate skeleton; they include leather coral, cauliflower coral, and tree coral.

Soft Water: Water with a low concentration of dissolved salts.

Solid Substance: A material that has definite form and shape.

Somatic Growth: Growth of the body, exclusive of gametes.

Sorting (of a sediment): The range of scatter of particle sizes about the median grain size of a sediment.

Space Limited: Description of a situation in which space is a limiting resource.

Spatial Autocorrelation: A situation in which some parameter at any location (e.g., population density) can be predicted through a knowledge of the values of the parameter in other locations.

Spatial Distribution: The arrangement of individuals in a space.

Spawn: To bring forth a new generation of fish. Most fish spawn by digging nests in the substrate and depositing fertilized eggs into them. Other fishes, called mouthbrooders, will incubate fertilized eggs in their buccal cavities.

Spawning: A term used for breeding. See Spawn.

Speciation: The process of formation of new species.

Species: Organisms that are genetically related, similar physically, and can reproduce viable offspring. This is the most useful taxonomical name because every living creature is assigned a unique species name, which is composed of two parts.

Species-Area Effect: A regular logarithmic relationship between the number of species in a confined geographic area (e.g., an island) and the area in which the species occur.

Species Richness: The number of different species found in a particular environment.

Species Tank: An aquarium where only one type of fish is kept.

Specific Capacity: Expresses the productivity of a well. Specific capacity is obtained by dividing the well discharge rate by the well drawdown while pumping.

Specific Gravity: The measurement used in marine systems to describe the salt content of water. Specific Gravity of seawater ranges from 1.022 to 1.030.

Specific Yield: The ratio of the volume of water that will drain from a unit volume of aquifer by gravity flow.

Spectrum: Used to describe the wavelengths of light produced by a bulb.

Spirally Coiled: Circling around a point in constantly increasing or decreasing curves.

Spire: All the whorls starting from the apex downwards except for the last one.

Sponge Filter: This filter provides both mechanical and biological filtration. It consists of a large foam rubber (sponge) block connected to a lift tube or small power head. Water is drawn through the sponge, which acts as a mechanical filter by removing particles, and gives dentrifying bacteria colony a niche (biological).

Spore: Minute, unicellular, asexual reproductive structure of an alga.

Sporophyte: Diploid stage in the life cycle of a plant.

Sprayfield: Land (near the hog lagoon) on which the hog waste is applied. High-powered spray guns spray the hog waste high in the air and it drifts back onto the land.

Spring Diatom Increase: The major rapid population increase of diatoms, occurring in the spring in temperate-boreal latitudes.

Spring: The point of natural groundwater discharge to a soil surface, river, or lake.

Spring Tides: Fortnightly tides occurring when the vertical tidal range is maximal.

Stability-Time Hypothesis: Hypothesis that states that higher diversity occurs in habitats that are ancient and stable environmentally.

Standing Crop: The amount of living material per unit area or volume; may be expressed as grams of carbon, total dry weight.

Static Water Level: The water level in a well located in an unconfined aquifer when the pump is not operating. The static water level is the surface of the water-bearing formation and typically is synonymous with the water table.

Stinging Cells: Mechanisms located on the tentacles of coral polyps that enable them to capture passing zooplankton; similar in appearance to poison darts or recoiling darts; scientifically known as cnidae.

Stipes: The stalk of a fernleaf, corresponding to the petiole in flowering plants.

Stock Recruitment Models: Fishery models that predict the amount of juvenile recruitment as a function of the parent stock.

Stolon: A horizontal stem growing just below the gravel, as in many species of Cryptocoryne.

Stomach: The sack-like part of an animal where digestion takes place.

Stomata: Minute pores in the surface of leaves and Herbaceous stems through which exchanges of gases with the atmosphere occurs.

Stony Corals: A group of coral species known as hard coral that form the hard, calcium carbonate skeleton such types include thc brain corals, fungus or mushroom corals, staghorn and table corals, flower pot corals, bubble corals and lettuce corals.

Strain: A variety of a certain species. The freshwater guppy, for example, has only one species name but several strains.

Stratification: In benthos, the presence of different infaunal species at distinct respective horizons below the sediment-water interface.

Strontium (Sr): This trace element is necessary for corals, clams, and other creatures with calcareous skeletons to grow. It is most commonly added as strontium chloride SrCl2.

Subcentral: Around or towards the center.

Subsistence: The process of catching fish for the purpose of survival. There are special rules and methods which are allowed when a person is subsistence fishing vs. sport fishing.

Subspecies: An offset of a certain species, usually due to their separation in nature.

Substrate: The material making up the base on which an organism lives or to which it is attached. Also, the material used to cover the bottom of the fish tank. Examples include gravel, crushed coral, crushed seashells, and sand.

Substratum: The many different layers of substrates found in nature or in the aquarium.

Subtropical: Refers to the portion of the temperate zone closest to the equator.

Succession: A predictable ordering of a dominance of a species or groups of species following the opening of an environment to biological colonization.

Suffocate: To kill by cutting off the fresh supply of air, water or nutrients; to smother.

Sulfate (SO4): The drinking water limit is 250 mg/L. Sulfate (SO4-2) is widely distributed in natural waters, but is typically less than a few mg/L. In Northeastern Pennsylvania, the primary sources of sulfate in surface waters and groundwater include: acid mine drainage, acid deposition, and mineral oxidation. Standard set because of taste and aesthetic problems and sulfates laxative effects. Sulfuric salts in water form what is known as non-carbonate hardness.

Sulfite (SO3): May occur in boilers and boiler feedwaters treated with sulfite to control dissolved oxygen levels, natural waters containing industrial waste and in wastewater treatment plant effluents using sulfur dioxide to dechlorinate the effluent.

Sump: A water reservoir which is at a lower level than that of the tank. Gravity is used to cause water to drain from the main tank to the sump. A pump is used to move water from the sump back to the tank. This creates a continuous flow where all water in the system passes through the sump. And then you can fit the sump with a filter or have the sump run to a filter.

Surface Layer: The layer of the ocean extending from the surface to a depth above which the ocean is homogeneous due to wind mixing.

Surface Water: Water flowing on surfaces such as rivers, streams, lakes, estuaries, and oceans.

Survivorship Curve: The curve describing changes of mortality rate as a function of age.

Suspension Feeder: An organism that feeds by capturing particles suspended in the water column.

Suture: The spiral trace of each whorls juncture with its adjacent whorl.

Swash Rider: Invertebrate that can migrate up and down shore with the rising and falling tide, in order to maintain station at a level that is moist but not overly washed by the waves.

Sweeper Tentacle/Polyp: A coral tentacle or polyp that has an increased number of nematocysts and elongates in order to 'sting' neighboring corals and sessile invertebrates.

Swim Bladder: An internal organ that helps fish maintain normal buoyancy.

Symbiosis: A physical relationship between two species in which at least one species is dependent upon the other.

Symbiotic Relationship: A relationship between two living things that live together for the benefit of both.
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