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Gallons Per Hour (gph): This is a unit of measurement usually used to rate pumps. For example, a certain pump may have an output of 400 gph, or gallons per hour, meaning that in one hour, it cycles 400 gallons.

Gaining Stream (effluent stream): A stream or portion of a stream where flow increases because of discharge from groundwater.

Gametophyte: Haploid stage in the life cycle of a plant.

General or Total Hardness: The sum of carbonate hardness and non-carbonate hardness. Usually expressed in degrees of dH.

Generation Time: The time period from birth to average age of reproduction.

Genetic Drift: Changes in allele frequencies that can be ascribed to random effects.

Genetic Locus: A location on a chromosome (possibly of a diploid organism with variants that segregate according to the rules of Mendelian heredity).

Genetic Polymorphism: Presence of several genetically controlled variants in a population.

Genotype: The genetic makeup of an organism, with respect to a given genetic locus, the alleles it carries.

Genus: Plural: genera. In the taxonomy classification, the genus is the category ranking below a family and above a species.

Geostrophic Flow: Movement of water in the oceans as a combined response to the Coriolis effect and gravitational forces created by an uneven sea surface.

Geotactic: Moving in response to the earth's gravitational field.

Gill: The respiratory organs used by fish. It permits dissolved oxygen to be extracted from the water in which the fish swims.

Gill Cover: A hard bony plate covering the gills, also known as an operculum or a gill plage.

Gill Netting: The process of catching fish by a net which catches the gills of the fish, trapping them inside.

Geographic Information System (GIS): A system that allows automatic location of information suitable for mapping. Usually involves a software system that takes geographic position data and other data (e.g., type of bottom sediment) in order to create a map. Data on processes (e.g., current speed) can be incorporated to make a geographic model of flow.

Glass Bottom Boat: Boats whose bottom is made of glass or other see-through material that allows the viewing of the underwater environments.

Global Warming: Predicted increase in the earth's oceanic and atmospheric temperature, owing to additions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, as a result of human activities.

Gonopodium: Particular to the Live-bearing tooth carps, the gonopodium is a modified anal fin of male fish that has been converted into a genital organ.

Gorgonian: A tropical or subtropical octocoral with upright branchy plant-like or fan-like growths and a skeleton made of a horny organic material. For example, the Sea Fans (Scientific names: Gorgonia ventalina, G. flabellum, G. mariae, Pacifigorgia spp.).

Global Positioning System (GPS): An electronic device that uses positioning signals from satellites in order to locate precisely latitutude and longitude. Now used nearly exclusively for locating ship sampling stations at sea, but also useful for locations near and on shore.

Grab: Benthic sampling device with two or more curved metal plates designed to converge when the sampler hits bottom and grab a specified volume of bottom sediment.

Grains Per Gallon: A unit of measurement often used to describe water hardness. One grain per gallon is approximately equal to 17 ppm of various cations.

Gravid: A pregnant female livebearer or female who is ready to lay eggs.

Grazer: A predator that consumes organisms far smaller than itself (e.g., copepods graze on diatoms).

Greenhouse Effect: Carbon dioxide traps solar-derived heat in the atmosphere near the earth.

Gregarious Settling: Settlement of larvae that have been attracted to members of their own species.

Groove: A long narrow channel.

Gross Primary Productivity: The total primary production, not counting the loss in respiration.

Groundwater: Water beneath the ground that occupies voids, cracks or other spaces between particles of clay, silt, sand, gravel, or porous rock. Groundwater is an important source of water for humans, and also supplies rivers, lakes, streams, estuaries, and other waterways.

Groundwater Mining: The removal of groundwater from an aquifer in excess of the rate of natural or artificial recharge. Continued groundwater mining reduces the groundwater supply until it is no longer an economical source of water.

Groundwater Recharge: The process where water enters the soil and eventually reaches the saturated zone. Recharge varies from place to place due to the amount of rainfall, infiltration, and surface vegetation.

Guild: A group of species, possibly unrelated taxonomically, that exploit overlapping resources.

Gyre: Major cyclonic surface current systems in the oceans.
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