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Nutritional Deficiencies in Fish
by Robert B. Moeller Jr., DVM

California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System
University of California
 

Iodine Deficiency

Iodine deficiency cause hyperplasia (goiter) of the thyroid tissue. The cause is not always known. Some goiters may be due to iodine deficiency (very difficult to produce). However, the most likely cause may be due to the affects of goitrogenic substances in the feed or due to the presence of goitrogenic pollutants in the water.
 

Fatty Acid Deficiency (Linolenic and linoleic acid deficiency)

Fish are capable of synthesizing most fatty acids but not the linolenic or linoleic acid series. Deficiencies of these fatty acids lead to depigmentation, fin erosion, cardiomyopathy, fatty infiltration of the liver, and myxomatous degeneration of fat.
 

Vitamin C Deficiency

Ascorbic acid is an essential vitamin of fish. Deficiencies of this vitamin lead to poor wound healing, ulceration of the skin on fins, hemorrhage, and skeletal deformity. This vitamin is very temperature sensitive and oxidizes readily in stored feed.
 

Vitamin E Deficiency

Vitamin E deficiency is associated with necrosis and degeneration of skeletal and cardiac muscle, steatitis, and lipoidal liver disease.
 

Pantothenic Acid Deficiency

Pantothenic acid is a coenzyme need in the metabolism of fats and carbohydrates. Deficiencies lead to anorexia due to hyperplasia of the gill lamellar epithelium and fusion of secondary lamella (nutritional gill disease). Anemia is usually associated with the disease.
 

Methionine Deficiency

Methionine deficiency (primarily in salmonids) leads to reduced growth rate with the development of bilateral cataracts. (Zinc, and cystine deficiencies can also cause cataracts) It is felt that deficiencies of vitamin A and riboflavin also play a role in this lesion.
 

REFERENCES

1. Roberts R.J: Fish Pathology, Bailliere Tindall, London, Second edition, 1989.

2. Ferguson H.W.: Systemic Pathology of Fish, Iowa State Press, Ames, Iowa, 1989.

3. Anderson B.G.: Atlas of Trout Histology, Wyoming Department of Fish and Game, 1974.

4. Fox J.C.: Laboratory Animal Medicine, Academic Press, 1984.

5. Magaki G., Rebelin W.E.: The Pathology of Fishes, The University of Wisconsin Press, 1975.

6. Wolf K.: Fish Viruses and Fish Viral Diseases, Cornell University Press, London 1988.

7. Tucker C.S.: Channel Catfish Culture, Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, 1985.

8. Principal Diseases of Farm Raised Catfish, Southern Cooperative Series Bulletin No 225, 1985.

9. Wales J.H.: Microscopic Anatomy of Salmonids. An Atlas, United States Department of the Interior, Resource Publication 150, 1983.

10. Grizzle J.M.: Anatomy and Histology of the Channel Catfish, Auburn Printing Co, 1976.

11. Reichenbach-Klinke H. H.: Fish Pathology, T.F.H. Publications, Inc. Neptune City, NJ. 1973.

12. Stoskopf, M.K.: Fish Medicine, W.B. Saunders Co. 1993.

13. DeTolla, L.J., Srinivas, S.: "Guidelines for the Care and Use of Fish in Research". Institute of Laboratory Animal Resourses Journal. Vol 37:4(1995), pp 159-173.

14. Kane, A.J., Gonzalez, J. F., Reimschuessel, R: "Fish and Amphibian Models Used in Laboratory Research". Laboratory Animal. Vol 25:6(1996), pp 33-38.

15. Lewbart G.A. Self-Assesment Color Review of Ornamental Fish, Iowa State Press,1998.

16. Bruno D.W., Poppe T.T., A color atlas of Salmonid Diseases. Academic press, 1996.

 

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