A legendary boiling river has been found in the Amazon forest. While there are no cichlids in this river, or probably any fish whatsoever, the story is still interesting. Despite the legends of a boiling river deep in the Amazon jungle, scientists believed that there wasn’t volcanic activity in the region to create high temperature waters. It is believed that the hot water is the result of cracks and faults that allow heated water to rise from deep in the earth’s crust.
For more information, pictures and a video on the discovery near Mayantuyacu, Peru visit the article on the Daily Mail website.
The Aquatic Gardeners Association is an organization geared toward beginner and advanced hobbyists. The AGA publishes an English language quarterly journal available to the association’s members. The AGA also has an international aquascaping competition where participants enter their creations in various categories.
If you’re into aquatic gardening or just enjoy the beautiful creations, make sure to check out last year’s winners on the AGA 2015 contest page. You’ll find the different categories which link to the entries and winners. There is also a Biotope Aquascape category showing the different environments including those where you’d find cichlids. Thanks to DJRansome for bringing Aquatic Gardeners Association contest to my attention. Discussion on aquarium plants can be done in the Aquarium Decoration forum.
Often referred to as the blue-lipped blockhead, Steatocranus irvinei isn’t often seen in the hobby. Originally from the Volta River Basin in Ghana, this West African cichlid is very drab. Despite the lack of color, many Steatocranus fans find beauty in their unique appearance and are endeared with their behavior.
Although several species of Steatocranus do well in community tanks, Steatocranus irvinei does have an aggressive streak and will harass other fish. They need large tanks and do best in a species only tank or with other fish that can take care of themselves. To learn more about Steatocranus check out the article by Dave Hansen Steatocranus: A Genus Review. You can discuss S. irvinei and other West African cichlids in the Lake Victoria Basin, West African, Madagascar & Asian Species forum.
Pundamilia sp. “red head” Zue Island. Photo by Greg Steeves
On the southern side of Lake Victoria there are two locations where Pundamilia sp. “red head” where originally found, Zue Island and Mabibi Island. The Zue Island P. sp. “red head” spends its days grazing the rocks along the shore. It is the only Pundamilia species at this location and its been said that they don’t compete well with other Pundamilia.
In the aquarium, Pundamilia sp. “red head” are often bullied by aggressive fish, especially other Pundamilia species. Suitable tankmates include Neochromis rufocaudalis, Xystichromis sp. “flameback”, or Haplochromis sp. “Kenya gold”. Other fish may work as long as they are not too aggressive and differ in color and body shape. Diet is also a consideration when picking tankmates. P. sp. “red head” needs a diet high in vegetable matter, perhaps more than other other Pundamilia species. Finding P. sp. “red head” on stock lists can be difficult but not impossible. Males are beautifully colored, sporting red, yellow and green. They would make a great addition to suitable aquariums and are best kept in groups of one male to multiple females. To discuss Pundamilia sp. “red head” visit the Lake Victoria forum.
A short Nandopsis tetracanthus video by Lee Nuttall of The Central Scene – North & Central American Cichlid Keeping magazine.
Nandopsis tetracanthus is a beautiful cichlid found throughout Cuba. It lives in rivers, streams, and lagoons. N. tetracanthus also has a high tolerance of salt water. In the wild this species is under pressure since the introduction of Oreochromis mossambicus, a type of Tilapia.
In the aquarium, Nandopsis tetracanthus can be a handful. Not only do the males reach 10+ inches, but they are extremely aggressive toward their own kind and other species. Females are sometimes killed by their male partners. Males are larger and have a golden/silvery color while the females have a well defined black and white pattern. Females can lay hundreds of eggs on a flat surface and the pair will protect the fry while they are small. To discuss N. tetracanthus visit the Central American Cichlids forum.
Female Nandopsis tetracanthus with fry. Screen capture from video.
Prognathochromis perrieri has not been seen in its native waters of Lake Victoria since the mid 1980s. Surveys during the early 80s saw its decline and disappearance. Since then, other surveys have seen a comeback of other species in the area, but not P. perrieri. Fish that could possible be P. perrieri have been caught, but are most likely hybrids or simple misidentification. Although the Nile Perch decimated their numbers, poor water clarity probably caused the remaining population to hybridize.
A study attempting to determine what the Rift Valley of east Africa looked like during the mid to late Miocene Epoch (11 to 16 million years ago) found that cichlids made up the majority of fish species in the area, like they do today. Cichlid fossils ranged is size from under an inch to about 6 inches. Although the study wasn’t about cichlids, their fossils helped to paint a picture of what the landscape was like during that period. The amount of cichlid fossils and the sediments surrounding them told of catastrophic events and changing water levels during that time.
The study also identified several new species of cichlids. Future studies hope to identify the relationship between the fossilized fish and the fish found today. The complete publication is behind a paywall, but a summary can be found at the PHSY.ORG website.
An interesting take of a shell dweller tank by Fatih Bolat.
I’ve used rock formation in shell dweller tanks, but only for aesthetics or to divide groups of shellies. The aquarium in the video above presents a different use of hardscaping that is beautiful and helps push the shellies to the front of the tank. This design also gives me ideas on possible uses for the large rock formations. It helps create a second layer where bottom hugging fish that don’t need the sand can make their home without directly competing with the shell dwellers.
The video description doesn’t give any info other than the two species that inhabit the tank; ‘Lamprologus’ ocellatus Gold and ‘Lamprologus’ similis. It would have been great to learn about the rock formation. Is it natural rock? A large piece with smaller rocks surrounding it or is it man-made? Regardless, this setup offers great possibilities. A rock dwelling species like Julidochromis, Neolamprologus or Altolamprologus could be added to inhabit the upper rocky area without the two different types of fish sharing the same ground.
This beautiful fish, formally classified as a Vieja species, can be found in lakes and rivers of Central America. Paratheraps guttulatus specimens have been collected from Lake Coatepeque in El Salvador but has been reported, correctly or incorrectly, in other lakes in the region.
Although not very aggressive, Paratheraps guttulatus is a large fish. Males reach 12 inches while females are a little smaller. A large tank is required. P. guttulatus is an omnivore and care should be taken to ensure it gets protein and plant matter in its diet, especially if breeding is desired. Spawning takes place on a flat surface or cave. Females do most of the care and can sometimes become aggressive toward the males. To discuss P. guttulatus visit the Central Americans Cichlids forum.
Cynotilapia aurifrons Mphanga Rocks. Photo by Greg Steeves
Cynotilapia aurifrons Mphanga Rocks is a variant of C. aurifrons from the Mphanga Rocks area of Lake Malawi. The different locations and variants of C. aurifrons show slight color differences. Male Mphanga Rocks variants show a little more yellow along the dorsal fin and head than the Nkhata Bay variant, but not as much as the Chilumba variant.
In the aquarium, Cynotilapia aurifrons should be fed a diet high in vegetable matter like a spirulina based flake or pellet like other mbuna. While somewhat shy around other species, C. aurifrons males can be very aggressive toward their own. Best kept in groups of one male and multiple females. The presence of other aggressive species will dull the color of males and they will take on the neutral color of females. Male colors are best when spawning. A minimum of a 4 foot tank with plenty of rocks is recommended. To discuss Cynotilapia aurifrons visit the Lake Malawi species forum.