Telmatochromis temporalis Magara. Photo by Ad Konings
A study of Telmatochromis temporalis by the University of Bristol has shown that competition plays a role in the evolution of new species. T. temporalis is an endemic cichlid from Lake Tanganyika. According to the study, the larger T. temporalis drive the smaller temporalis away from the preferred rocky habitat. The smaller T. temporalis are forced to build their homes in shells along the sand. The competition for the preferred habitat has separated the two groups of fish. Once separated, the two groups will only breed among themselves. This separation opens the door for different evolutionary paths. Ad Konings has always considered T. sp. “temporalis shell” to be a morph of the original T. temporalis.
A video by one of the authors of the study explains the process:
For hundreds of years the starting point of the Amazon River has been disputed. The starting point, at one time or another, has been attributed to many different rivers. A new study claims the Mantaro River in southwestern Peru is the beginning of the world’s largest river. This same region has claimed the title in several locations. If the study is correct, the new starting location extends the overall length of the Amazon River by 47 to 57 miles. The read more about the quest to determine the origins of the Amazon River and opposition to the study’s results, visit National Geographic Daily News.
Astatotilapia flaviijosephi. Photo by Greg Steeves
Astatotilapia flaviijosephi is a rare cichlid that has the distinction of being the only non-African Haplochromine. Populations of this species can been found in rivers and lakes in Israel and Jordon. How this Haplochromine managed to get from Africa to its current habitat isn’t exactly know. It is believed that its ancestors migrated over a land bridge that joined Egypt and the Middle east millions of years ago. A. flaviijosephi’s closest relative is Astatotilapia desfontainii, a North African cichlid. Due to habitat destruction, A. flaviijosephi’s is currently listed as endangered.
Greg Steeves was able to obtain some specimens of A. flaviijosephi’s. Through his experience with its closest relative, A. desfontainii, he was able to keep, raise and successfully spawn them. You can read all about Astatotilapia flaviijosephi and how to successfully keep this unique fish from his article titled Astatotilapia flaviijosephi – The only Non-African Haplochromine.
Pale Wind, Takayuki Fukada. Japan. 2013 IAPLC Gold Prize
The International Aquatic Plants Layout Contest (IAPLC) holds an annual competition to determine the best aquascapes in the world. The 2013 results are out, and everyone is a winner. The participants in this competition take their art very seriously. These aquascapes take months to mature and competitors need to have a keen eye for design and biology. 2013 had a total of 2,164 applications from 57 countries/areas, with the majority of entries being from Japan, China and India. Although the IAPLC publishes a list of the results (pdf), they don’t show the actual pictures. Brazilian site AquaA3.com.br appears to have published the results for the last couple years and they can be found here: 2013 and 2012.
Newly discovered Inia araguaiaensis. Photo by Nicole Dutra
It has been almost 100 years since a new river dolphin species has been discovered. Unfortunately, the news comes with a reminder of the problems facing the Amazon river basin. The new river dolphin species has been named Inia araguaiaensis, and as few as 600 individuals live in the Araguaia River. It is believed that the formation of rapids along the Araguaia River separated a group of river dolphins over 2 million years ago. In that time, the isolated dolphins evolved into a distinct new species. Their habitat is threatened by dam construction and I. araguaiaensis, like all other river dolphins, is already endangered.
Bioluminescent phytoplankton in Maldives beach. Photo by Will Ho.
We reported on bioluminescent phytoplankton that appeared in Australia a year ago and now it’s back. This time the phytoplankton bloomed on the beaches of the Maldives Islands in the Indian Ocean. Photographer Will Ho captured the event. The glowing effect comes from an algae bloom of Lingulodinium polyedrum. Stress causes the L. polyedrum to emit the blue glow. As seen in the picture below, stepping on the algae triggers the bioluminescence.
It isn’t often that I get excited about something as simple as a bucket, but I’ve got to say I was really impressed with this one. The Big Gripper is a newly designed bucket by Leaktite and it appears to be a Home Depot exclusive. However, I quick search online and found it available at a couple other places. For those of us that have had to lift a bucket up to a tank and ended up with a mess, this bucket seams like the perfect alternative to the regular orange buckets. The Big Gripper holds 3.5 gallons vs the 5 gallons of orange buckets, but the ease of use might make up for capacity version. It has a thicker handle to spare your fingers and convenient hand-holds on the top and bottom to make pouring much easier. Take a look at the Big Gripper video below and decide for yourself.
Video showing the release of the first 32 captive raised Pseudotropheus saulosi into the waters around Taiwan Reef, Lake Malawi.
Back in September 2013, Ad Konings released 32 captive raised Pseudotropheus saulosi. At one time the waters around Taiwan Reef reef were full of this species, but in the last few years the population has decreased to the point that it is difficult to find them. Hopefully this will help reestablish the Ps. saulosi population in their native home.
Pseudotropheus saulosi is a favorite mbuna with many hobbyists. Females and juveniles are bright yellow while the dominant male is blue and black. Their temperament, which is less aggressive than other mbuna, also make them a great fish for beginners. For more information on this species, make sure to read the Species Article by Paul Barber.
Male and female Ps. saulosi. Photo by Gerard Delany
Lake Natron is located in northern Tanzania. What sets Lake Natron apart from other rift lakes is an unusual combination of factors which make it an incredibly inhospitable lake. High temperatures, shallow waters and mineral-rich hot springs combine to raise the pH of the lake as high as 10.5. Despite all these factors, 3 species of alkaline tilapias make their home in these waters; Alcolapia latilabris, A. ndalalani and A. alcalica.
What is also amazing about these alkaline tilapias is not only can they thrive in alkaline waters that would kill most other cichlids, but they can also live in more neutral pH waters. To understand just how hostile the waters of Lake Natron are, take a look at the Lake That Turns Animals to Stone? Not Quite article on LifeScience.com.
A monthly radio show, Let’s Talk About Cichlids, hosted by Greg Steeves and Ken McKeighen will make its debut next week on BlogTalk Radio. Greg is best known for his work with Victorian cichlids. You can find many of his species articles in the Lake Victoria Basin Cichlid Profiles section. Ken is a Paleontologist, artist, and accomplished killifish keeper. Together they will discuss cichlid fish, cichlid people, cichlid events and anything else that happens to pop up in a relaxed and humorous atmosphere.
Their first guest will be none other than Pam Chin. Pam writes for the Buntbarsche Bulletin (Ask Pam column), Cichlid News Magazine and various aquarium societies. She is also a founding member of “Babes In The Cichlid Hobby”. Make sure to visit the Let’s Talk About Cichlids radio show page for more information.
The first show will be on January 18th at 7:00 pm CST. Future shows will be on the third Saturday of each month at 7:00 pm CST.